The radial bone is one of the 2 bones of the forearm, into which the biceps are “inserted”. The rigidity of holding the bar and its smooth (without tremor / backlash) stroke in the hands when working with a large weight depends on the thickness and strength of the forearm . Another bone of the upper humeral girdle, the ulnar, is the most important, from the point of view of working with the weight of the bar, of the two bones of the forearm.
No. 3.1. Shoulder complex
Technically complex ensemble of bones, which is most often the first fails while bench press (the expression “flew shoulders”) . When pressing the barbell shoulders perform two movements – bending and horizontal bending. Abduction is also important – the movement of the limb, directed away from the central axis of the body and a sufficient range of rotation of deltas. If you do not strengthen the shoulders, especially the front delta, and do not worry about increasing the mobility and strength of the rotator cuff, then press records can be forgotten.
№ 3.2. Elbows
A simple joint that bends and unbends. During the press and the removal of weight up, elbows do the extension work. They also, like shoulders, when they reach a substantial magnum pump xr weight begin to fly out. Therefore, it is important not to overload the elbows with any additional load on the bench day.
The strength of the wrists depends on the reliability of holding the neck. A lot of weight places increased demands on their “performance”.
Now go through the muscles.
pectoral muscles, anatomy, bench press
The pectoral muscles are the main “receivers” of the load from the barbell, they have a great motor potential, which they realize through horizontal flexion during the movement. The muscle fibers of the clavicular division are usually classified as the upper chest, the sternal fibers are the lower. It is the pectoral, in particular, the large pectoral, which bears most of the load during the execution of the bench press lying horizontally.
triceps, anatomy, bench press
These are extensors of the elbow joint, consisting of 3 heads. During the press, it is the long head that works most actively in moving the weight up. It often happens that the weight does not go (there is no final boost) due to the weak triceps.
So, we have considered the “elements” that play a major role in the exercise of the bench press exercise.
We go further.
Bench press lying: EMG muscles of the upper limbs
Agree, it would be interesting to find out how the muscles of the upper shoulder girdle behave, what electrical activity is produced when the bench is pressed. And there is such data (NSU, St. Petersburg, 2015 , NB Kichaykina, GA Samsonov) . They say and show the following (athlete MSMK, bar weight 140 kg) .
barbell bench press, upper muscle activity test
Conclusions from the chart:
in the acceleration phase of the bar, when it is lowered onto the chest, triceps and a large pectoral are pronounced;
the activity of the deltoid muscles increases with the lowering of the barbell on the chest and shows high values prior to the lifting phase;
The role of the biceps muscle when performing bench press is very small.
Now let’s analyze the bench clearly in terms of strength and their maximum synergy.
Barbell bench press: force geometry
Gravity will always pull the bar down, but when you add lateral (lateral) forces, the resulting vector (the product of 2 forces in different directions) will not point straight down.
Lateral bench press
The outer shoulder of force is the perpendicular distance between the affected joint and the vector of application of force. The resulting force vector, taking into account lateral forces, is much closer to the shoulder than the gravity-only force vector acting on the neck. This means that the resultant force arm for horizontal flexion is shorter, which makes weight lifting by the pectoral muscles easier.
When you shake, the lateral forces are about 25-30% more than the vertical forces relative to the fingerboard. This only increases the overall strength (by about 3-4% ) , which you must overcome, but shortens (by about 20% ) the leverage for horizontal abduction (the percentage depends on the width of the grip) .
Bench bar bench horizontal force
Note / explanation to the picture:
On the left, you can see the shoulder of the horizontal flexing force (solid black line) when only vertical forces are taken into account. On the right, how much shorter the shoulder of the force of horizontal flexion becomes when taking into account the horizontal / lateral forces in relation to the neck.
It is also important to understand that the pectoral and triceps can work in synergy: both from the side of the elbow – the pectoral help the triceps to bend the elbow, and from the side of the shoulder – the triceps helps the breast in the horizontal flexion of the shoulder.
Since the forearms themselves cannot move much. hands are in a fixed position, the shoulder should be bent horizontally, because triceps working on the elbow extension. The opposite is also true with respect to the pectoral ones – since the arms are fixed in place (they hold the neck) and the pectoral work is performed in order to carry out the horizontal flexion of the shoulder, the elbows must be unbent.
Note / explanation to the picture:
Since the triceps unbend the elbow, they help the shoulders to be flexed horizontally, and as the pectorals bend the shoulders horizontally, they help to bend the elbows. Stronger pectorals facilitate the process of extension of the elbows (in this case it becomes easier to press the weight) , and stronger triceps make it easier to carry out the horizontal flexion of the shoulder.